A series of stunning revelations have been made in a book published early this year. Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley was written by technology journalist Emily Chang. It covers sexism in Silicon Valley.

Designer-drug house parties, where eager and naive young female graduates are lured to engage in casual sex with older, wealthy men.

Male engineers pressured to work 16 hour days, then rewarded with strip joints and Las Vegas weekends.

And behind the scenes, old money keeping billion dollar opportunities in the hands of a wealthy elite.

This is not the ‘digital disruption’ that the startup world has promised.

Emily Chang is the anchor and executive producer of Bloomberg Technology where she regularly interviews tech executives, investors, and entrepreneurs.

Here are the major points that stood out for me, when reading her book.

During the 40’S when the computer industry began, women worked alongside men and were treated as equals. Since then they have become a marginalised minority.

During World War II, about 8,000 women worked at Bletchley Park, the central site for British cryptanalysts. Women constituted roughly 75% of the secretive workforce that housed the Government Code and Cypher School, which broke German Enigma and Lorenz ciphers.

Across the Atlantic, Grace Hopper, a mathematics PhD was programming the Mark I, a giant computer at Harvard University. During the war, the Mark I helped design the atomic bombs America would drop in 1945.

American women were also among the first to program the first computer ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) during the war.

In 1962, three black women working as NASA mathematicians helped calculate the flight paths that put John Glenn into orbit. Another woman Margaret Hamilton, also headed up the team that wrote the code that plotted Apollo 11’s path to the moon.

In the early years of computing, the work involved a lot of manual labor that was less like doing higher mathematics and more like running a telephone switchboard. During the fifties and sixties, computer jobs were openly advertised as being suitable for women.

In 1984, 50% of computer course graduates were women.

As the computer industry grew and companies realised how important it was, a serious shortage of computer programmers resulted. Wages rose. So did programmers social status.

As recruiters raced to train and employ more staff, psychology testing to quickly pick up suitable candidates become popular. Psychology testing identified traits as being male, anti social and loving puzzles and games. Women were screened out and their numbers in computing dropped.

Today women earn just 22 percent of computer science degrees.

The startup myth is that people who succeed in tech are brilliant nerds. The reality is that where you went to school is the most statistically relevant piece of information about your chances of success in tech

The startup community promotes the idea that success rests on merit alone. This philosophy has its roots in the concept of the self made man, a key tenet of the American dream.

Anyone can achieve anything, as long as they are prepared to work hard.

‘If your parents count themselves among the top 1%, you’re 77 times more likely to attend an Ivy League college than your peers from families in the bottom 20% of the U.S.’ income distribution.’
Surprise: The 1% Is Overrepresented in the Ivy League

Many of close-knit group of wealthy startup founders, who became billionaires from technology companies like PayPal, have friendships that go back to their days at Ivy league Universities like Princeton and Stanford.

These social contacts, lead to friends hiring friends, success following success and millions turning into billions.

People are not always honest about the privileges their education had brought them. Some of the Silicon Valley millionaires see themselves as ‘outsiders’ who fought against great odds to achieve their wealth.

Others have ruthlessly exploited their family money and connections to raise millions of dollars, to fund unscientific products like Theranos.

Nobody can deny the achievements of great technology like Tesla, uTube, Linked In and Yelp.

However, numbers don’t lie.

According to a study by Crunchbase, graduates from Ivy League schools like Stanford and Princeton are far more likely to receive venture capital funding of 1 million or more.

Silicon Valley's obsession with huge profit margins, has created a culture of unrealistic expectations

In 2017, a young female engineer published a scathing blog about sexual harassment while working at Uber. It touched a nerve with other females in the tech scene. The post went viral.

Susan had joined Uber 2 years earlier and was immediately struck by the disproportionately low number of women to men. At one point, women accounted for less than 6 percent of her team.

On her first day on the job, her new manager made a pass at her;  over the internal company chat system.

While shocked, she took screen shots of the electronic messages and reported the man to the human resources department. She was told it was his first offense and he was a ‘high performer’, so he’d only get a warning.

Susan then transfer to another department where she met more women engineers. It turned out many had a similar story to tell about the same manager. Sexism wasn’t the only problem at Uber.

“We all lived under fear that our teams would be dissolved, there would be another reorg, and we’d have to start on yet another new project with an impossible deadline,” Fowler wrote. “It was an organisation in complete, unrelenting chaos” Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley

Drinking and sex entertainment was encouraged during work hours by supervisors and management.

They would be like, ‘Oh, everyone, let’s go get drinks’ or ‘let’s go to a strip club” Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley

Susan subsequently resigned from Uber. Many other female engineers had similar stories to tell.

Sexual harassment also occurs between female entrepreneurs and male investors, or Venture Capitalists.

Like the rest of Silicon Valley, investors operate in an unregulated environment.

The only people that investment firms are accountable to, are their Limited Partners. This is the group of wealthy individuals and groups like pension funds, who provide the money, in exchange for the promise of big returns over a period of time, usually 10 years.

“The only thing that VCs are measured on, their success, is 100 percent measured on returns… There is nobody who is holding them accountable to conduct business in a good way . . . They just need to make a lot of money for the LPs. How they do it matters less to the LPs” Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley

Part of the problem for these female entrepreneurs, is that Limited Partners are all competing with each other, to get their money into the best Venture Capitalist funds.

“I don’t care who they are; I just want the best returns. Some of the best VC’s aren’t the best people, but they drive the best returns” Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley

Imposing top down race and gender quotas on engineering workforces then suppressing public debate, is just as foolish as sexist, drunken bro parties

Google had females on their management team from the start, and has made the most efforts of all the big tech companies to actively support women.

In 2008 Google established a secret practice to review all the cases of female engineers who failed interviews. It was called the Revisit committee and included women engineers to take a closer look at the candidate.

Sheryl Sandberg worked to build camaraderie among Google’s female employees by setting up a series of women’s networking events, as well as mentoring females in the workplace.

Google also offers scholarships, internships and a summer camp. The places are all reserved for women and other underrepresented groups.

However other Google employees did not feel comfortable with these top down directives.

In August of 2017, the tech world was rocked by Google engineer James Damore’s ten-page memo explaining what he saw as the root causes of gender disparities at the company.

He openly criticized some of the cultural issues and hiring practices at Google.

James argued that there were biological reasons that men were more likely to be hired and promoted at tech companies. He believed men had a higher drive for status which drove them to tolerate high stress jobs, whereas women were more prone to anxiety and had a stronger interest in people and empathizing.

He (James Damore) characterized Google as a “politically correct monoculture that maintains its hold by shaming dissenters into silence” Brotopia, breaking up the boys club of Silicon Valley

Within 24 hours one social media site had crashed due to a spike in traffic. One website that supported James’s point of view was crashed by a DoS attack.

Within a few days James was sacked from Google.

He subsequently went on conservative media channels where his opinions were widely broadcast.

The Silicon Valley that Chan exposes also contains some hypocrisies - in public, the wealthy spout left wing values, in private they take drugs, have sex orgies and drive past the homeless in their European cars

If technology is here to make the world a better place, then you wouldn’t know it, after reading Brotopia.

The book reads more like a bacchanalia from the final days of the Roman Empire, than a celebration of innovation.

From the hookup culture, to polyamorous sex, to designer drugs and group sex parties; Brotopia paints a picture of small number of obscenely wealthy people, living in a moral vacuum.

The rich opportunities of Silicon Valley, are in stark contrast to outer suburban and rural poor of America, facing under-employment, outsourcing, poverty level wages and ‘the gig’ economy.

This book is not the first critique of Silicon Valley’s excesses and won’t be the last.

It is also a timely reminder of the growing disconnect across Western countries.

Technology is meant to be a tool to connect and improve people’s lives. We all need to work hard to keep it that way.

© Wikihospitals October 2018.